Jim Lovelock (by no means ‘James’) is remembered as the daddy of the Gaia hypoth-esis: the concept Earth is a self-regulating dwelling organism. Few accepted his argument that this ought to be elevated to the standing of a principle, regardless that it generated predictions about environ-mental adjustments that have been borne out by subsequent observations. As a heuristic mannequin, nevertheless, Gaia profoundly influenced fascinated about the atmosphere and the way we work together with it, giving rise to the sector of Earth-system research.

Lovelock was primarily an inventor, spending most of his profession as an unbiased scientist funded by the earnings from his innovations and due to this fact free from the constraints of a tutorial submit. His fascinated about environmental points stemmed from observations made along with his innovations. His most notable system was the electron seize detector, which ‘sniffed out’ traces of compounds within the air. This unexpectedly revealed the unfold of chlorofluorocarbons across the globe and the build-up of the pesticide DDT within the environ-ment, resulting in restrictions on the usage of these substances.

He was working as a guide for NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California, in 1965, when French astronomers reported infrared spectra exhibiting that the ambiance of Mars consisted primarily of carbon dioxide in secure equilibrium. He realized that Mars should be ‘useless’, as a result of life can exist solely in methods removed from equilibrium, feeding off a stream of vitality. He inferred, with biologist Lynn Margulis, that dwelling issues decide the atmospheric composition of a dwelling planet akin to Earth and keep situations appropriate for all times by way of feedbacks. The pair printed the thought in 1974 (J. E. Lovelock and L. Margulis Tellus 26, 2–10; 1974), the yr that Lovelock was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society. His legacy is enshrined within the now-standard thought of looking for indicators of life on exoplanets by finding out their spectra — the Lovelock check.

Lovelock was born on 26 July 1919, the end result, he believed, of his dad and mom’ celebration of the tip of the First World Struggle on 11 November the earlier yr. He grew up in Brixton, then a poor space of south London. Disadvantaged of instructional alternatives themselves, his dad and mom pushed him right into a grammar college, which he hated. He most popular to review standard books akin to James Denims’s 1928 Astronomy and Cosmogony. To the irritation of his academics, he did effectively in exams regardless of refusing to bow to authority. He was decided to turn out to be a scientist, however what he later described as ‘numerical dyslexia’ meant he couldn’t deal with the arithmetic required for physics, his first selection. He turned to chemistry as a substitute.

Unable to afford college, he took a job with a photographic chemist, however attended night courses at Birkbeck School, London, working in the direction of a level in chemistry. When this course was suspended after the outbreak of the Second World Struggle, Lovelock obtained a spot at what’s now the College of Manchester as a full-time scholar, subsisting on a grant of £60 (round US$1,300 at this time) from the Kent county council and £15 per yr from a charitable belief. Graduating in 1941, he was provided a job as a technician on the Nationwide Institute for Medical Analysis in London.

He was informed to review the impact of warmth on pores and skin by exposing shaved rabbits to warmth radiation, however most popular to burn himself. He discovered that after per week or so of repeated publicity, the ache turned merely a sensation of strain — however the space of arm he used within the examine remained insensitive for the remainder of his life. For the subsequent twenty years, his working life adopted a standard sample, which he later described as a 20-year apprenticeship. This included an investigation of how widespread colds unfold; cryonic experiments involving freezing and reviving hamsters; and advising on a BBC play, the place his recommendations for sound results inspired the formation of the BBC Radiophonic Workshop and, he claimed, thereby helped to encourage the unique theme for the tv collection Physician Who.

By the mid-1960s, he was an unbiased scientist (in each meanings of the time period), consulting for organizations akin to Shell and NASA; it was the latter work that led to the Gaia thought. Lovelock developed this idea over the subsequent decade. It gained little consideration till he printed his first e book, Gaia, in his 60th yr, 1979. This reached a large viewers thanks not solely to Lovelock’s concepts, but additionally to his accessible type.

As an alternative of a quiet retirement, Lovelock launched into an primarily new profession, selling the thought of Gaia, creating the mannequin and, to his dismay, turning into revered by hippy ‘environmentalists’ who thought that Gaia would ‘shield us’. He responded that “one of the best factor for Gaia is perhaps to eliminate us”. He was notably pondering of world warming, on which he acted as an off-the-cuff adviser to UK prime minister Margaret Thatcher within the late 1980s. He strongly supported nuclear energy as a substitute for fossil fuels.

Helen (née Hyslop), his spouse of 47 years, died in 1989. In 1991, he married Sandy Orchard, planning to settle all the way down to a quiet life that included strolling, in phases, England’s 1,000-kilometre South West Coast Path. As an alternative, the specter of world warming prompted him to write down The Revenge of Gaia (2006) to argue that Gaia was now in disaster. He continued to journey across the globe to advertise this message, and commenced to decelerate solely after his 90th birthday. Even then, he hoped to take up entrepreneur Richard Branson’s supply of a flight within the Virgin Galactic house aircraft, solely to surrender the dream on the recommendation of his docs. He remained lively into his 100th yr. His remaining e book, Novacene (2019), argued that people might be supplanted because the guardians of Gaia by synthetic intelligences which may, if we’re fortunate, maintain us as pets.

This text is reproduced with permission and was first printed on August 3 2022.

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